The Devil's Dictionary, by Ambrose Bierce

R

RABBLE, n.
In a republic, those who exercise a supreme authority tempered by fraudulent elections. The rabble is like the sacred Simurgh, of Arabian fable-- omnipotent on condition that it do nothing. (The word is Aristocratese, and has no exact equivalent in our tongue, but means, as nearly as may be, "soaring swine.")

RACK, n.
An argumentative implement formerly much used in persuading devotees of a false faith to embrace the living truth. As a call to the unconverted the rack never had any particular efficacy, and is now held in light popular esteem.

RANK, n.
Relative elevation in the scale of human worth.

RANSOM, n.
The purchase of that which neither belongs to the seller, nor can belong to the buyer. The most unprofitable of investments.

RAPACITY, n.
Providence without industry. The thrift of power.

RAREBIT, n.
A Welsh rabbit, in the speech of the humorless, who point out that it is not a rabbit. To whom it may be solemnly explained that the comestible known as toad- in-a- hole is really not a toad, and that riz- de-veau a la financiere is not the smile of a calf prepared after the recipe of a she banker.

RASCAL, n.
A fool considered under another aspect.

RASCALITY, n.
Stupidity militant. The activity of a clouded intellect.

RASH adj.
Insensible to the value of our advice.

RATIONAL adj.
Devoid of all delusions save those of observation, experience and reflection.

RATTLESNAKE, n.
Our prostrate brother, Homo ventrambulans.

REACH, n.
The radius of action of the human hand. The area within which it is possible (and customary) to gratify directly the propensity to provide.

READING, n.
The general body of what one reads. In our country it consists, as a rule, of Indiana novels, short stories in "dialect" and humor in slang.

RADICALISM, n.
The conservatism of to- morrow injected into the affairs of to- day.

RADIUM, n.
A mineral that gives off heat and stimulates the organ that a scientist is a fool with.

RAILROAD, n.
The chief of many mechanical devices enabling us to get away from where we are to wher we are no better off. For this purpose the railroad is held in highest favor by the optimist, for it permits him to make the transit with great expedition.

RAMSHACKLE adj.
Pertaining to a certain order of architecture, otherwise known as the Normal American. Most of the public buildings of the United States are of the Ramshackle order, though some of our earlier architects preferred the Ironic. Recent additions to the White House in Washington are Theo- Doric, the ecclesiastic order of the Dorians. They are exceedingly fine and cost one hundred dollars a brick.

REALISM, n.
The art of depicting nature as it is seem by toads. The charm suffusing a landscape painted by a mole, or a story written by a measuring- worm.

REALITY, n.
The dream of a mad philosopher. That which would remain in the cupel if one should assay a phantom. The nucleus of a vacuum.

REALLY, adv.
Apparently.

REAR, n.
In American military matters, that exposed part of the army that is nearest to Congress.

REASON, v.i.
To weight probabilities in the scales of desire.

REASON, n.
Propensitate of prejudice.

REASONABLE adj.
Accessible to the infection of our own opinions. Hospitable to persuasion, dissuasion and evasion.

REBEL, n.
A proponent of a new misrule who has failed to establish it.

RECOLLECT, v.
To recall with additions something not previously known.

RECONCILIATION, n.
A suspension of hostilities. An armed truce for the purpose of digging up the dead.

RECONSIDER, v.
To seek a justification for a decision already made.

RECOUNT, n.
In American politics, another throw of the dice, accorded to the player against whom they are loaded.

RECREATION, n.
A particular kind of dejection to relieve a general fatigue.

RECRUIT, n.
A person distinguishable from a civilian by his uniform and from a soldier by his gait.

RECTOR, n.
In the Church of England, the Third Person of the parochial Trinity, the Cruate and the Vicar being the other two.

REDEMPTION, n.
Deliverance of sinners from the penalty of their sin, through their murder of the deity against whom they sinned. The doctrine of Redemption is the fundamental mystery of our holy religion, and whoso believeth in it shall not perish, but have everlasting life in which to try to understand it.

REDRESS, n.
Reparation without satisfaction.Among the Anglo- Saxon a subject conceiving himself wronged by the king was permitted, on proving his injury, to beat a brazen image of the royal offender with a switch that was afterward applied to his own naked back. The latter rite was performed by the public hangman, and it assured moderation in the plaintiff's choice of a switch.

REDUNDANT adj.
Superfluous; needless; de trop.

The Sultan said: "There's evidence abundant
To prove this unbelieving dog redundant."
To whom the Grand Vizier, with mien impressive,
Replied: "His head, at least, appears excessive."
Habeeb Suleiman

Mr. Debs is a redundant citizen.
Theodore Roosevelt

REFERENDUM, n.
A law for submission of proposed legislation to a popular vote to learn the nonsensus of public opinion.

REFLECTION, n.
An action of the mind whereby we obtain a clearer view of our relation to the things of yesterday and are able to avoid the perils that we shall not again encounter.

REFORM, v.
A thing that mostly satisfies reformers opposed to reformation.

REFUGE, n.
Anything assuring protection to one in peril. Moses and Joshua provided six cities of refuge-- Bezer, Golan, Ramoth, Kadesh, Schekem and Hebron-- to which one who had taken life inadvertently could flee when hunted by relatives of the deceased. This admirable expedient supplied him with wholesome exercise and enabled them to enjoy the pleasures of the chase; whereby the soul of the dead man was appropriately honored by observations akin to the funeral games of early Greece.

REFUSAL, n.
Denial of something desired; as an elderly maiden's hand in marriage, to a rich and handsome suitor; a valuable franchise to a rich corporation, by an alderman; absolution to an impenitent king, by a priest, and so forth. Refusals are graded in a descending scale of finality thus: the refusal absolute, the refusal condition, the refusal tentative and the refusal feminine. The last is called by some casuists the refusal assentive.

RELIGION, n.
A daughter of Hope and Fear, explaining to Ignorance the nature of the Unknowable.

RELIQUARY, n.
A receptacle for such sacred objects as pieces of the true cross, short- ribs of the saints, the ears of Balaam's ass, the lung of the cock that called Peter to repentance and so forth. Reliquaries are commonly of metal, and provided with a lock to prevent the contents from coming out and performing miracles at unseasonable times. A feather from the wing of the Angel of the Annunciation once escaped during a sermon in Saint Peter's and so tickled the noses of the congregation that they woke and sneezed with great vehemence three times each. It is related in the "Gesta Sanctorum" that a sacristan in the Canterbury cathedral surprised the head of Saint Dennis in the library. Reprimanded by its stern custodian, it explained that it was seeking a body of doctrine. This unseemly levity so raged the diocesan that the offender was publicly anathematized, thrown into the Stour and replaced by another head of Saint Dennis, brought from Rome.

RENOWN, n.
A degree of distinction between notoriety and fame-- a little more supportable than the one and a little more intolerable than the other. Sometimes it is conferred by an unfriendly and inconsiderate hand.

REPARATION, n.
Satisfaction that is made for a wrong and deducted from the satisfaction felt in committing it.

REPARTEE, n.
Prudent insult in retort. Practiced by gentlemen with a constitutional aversion to violence, but a strong disposition to offend. 

REPENTANCE, n.
The faithful attendant and follower of Punishment. It is usually manifest in a degree of reformation that is not inconsistent with continuity of sin.

REPLICA, n.
A reproduction of a work of art, by the artist that made the original. It is so called to distinguish it from a "copy," which is made by another artist. When the two are mae with equal skill the replica is the more valuable, for it is supposed to be more beautiful than it looks.

REPORTER, n.
A writer who guesses his way to the truth and dispels it with a tempest of words.

REPOSE, v.i.
To cease from troubling.

REPRESENTATIVE, n.
In national politics, a member of the Lower House in this world, and without discernible hope of promotion in the next.

REPROBATION, n.
In theology, the state of a luckless mortal prenatally damned. The doctrine of reprobation was taught by Calvin, whose joy in it was somewhat marred by the sad sincerity of his conviction that although some are foredoomed to perdition, others are predestined to salvation.

REPUBLIC, n.
A nation in which, the thing governing and the thing governed being the same, there is only a permitted authority to enforce an optional obedience. In a republic, the foundation of public order is the ever lessening habit of submission inherited from ancestors who, being truly governed, submitted because they had to. There are as many kinds of republics as there are graduations between the despotism whence they came and the anarchy whither they lead.

REQUIEM, n.
A mass for the dead which the minor poets assure us the winds sing o'er the graves of their favorites. Sometimes, by way of providing a varied entertainment, they sing a dirge.

RESIDENT adj.
Unable to leave.

RESIGN, v.t.
To renounce an honor for an advantage. To renounce an advantage for a greater advantage.

RESOLUTE adj.
Obstinate in a course that we approve.

RESPECTABILITY, n.
The offspring of a liaison between a bald head and a bank account.

RESPIRATOR, n.
An apparatus fitted over the nose and mouth of an inhabitant of London, whereby to filter the visible universe in its passage to the lungs.

RESPITE, n.
A suspension of hostilities against a sentenced assassin, to enable the Executive to determine whether the murder may not have been done by the prosecuting attorney. Any break in the continuity of a disagreeable expectation.

RESPLENDENT adj.
Like a simple American citizen beduking himself in his lodge, or affirming his consequence in the Scheme of Things as an elemental unit of a parade.

RESPOND, v.i.
To make answer, or disclose otherwise a consciousness of having inspired an interest in what Herbert Spencer calls "external coexistences," as Satan "squat like a toad" at the ear of Eve, responded to the touch of the angel's spear. To respond in damages is to contribute to the maintenance of the plaintiff's attorney and, incidentally, to the gratification of the plaintiff.

RESPONSIBILITY, n.
A detachable burden easily shifted to the shoulders of God, Fate, Fortune, Luck or one's neighbor. In the days of astrology it was customary to unload it upon a star.

RESTITUTIONS, n.
The founding or endowing of universities and public libraries by gift or bequest.

RESTITUTOR, n.
Benefactor; philanthropist.

RETALIATION, n.
The natural rock upon which is reared the Temple of Law.

RETRIBUTION, n.
A rain of fire- and-brimstone that falls alike upon the just and such of the unjust as have not procured shelter by evicting them.

REVEILLE, n.
A signal to sleeping soldiers to dream of battlefields no more, but get up and have their blue noses counted. In the American army it is ingeniously called "rev- e-lee," and to that pronunciation our countrymen have pledged their lives, their misfortunes and their sacred dishonor.

REVELATION, n.
A famous book in which St. John the Divine concealed all that he knew. The revealing is done by the commentators, who know nothing.

REVERENCE, n.
The spiritual attitude of a man to a god and a dog to a man.

REVOLUTION, n.
In politics, an abrupt change in the form of misgovernment. Specifically, in American history, the substitution of the rule of an Administration for that of a Ministry, whereby the welfare and happiness of the people were advanced a full half- inch. Revolutions are usually accompanied by a considerable effusion of blood, but are accounted worth it-- this appraisement being made by beneficiaries whose blood had not the mischance to be shed. The French revolution is of incalculable value to the Socialist of to- day; when he pulls the string actuating its bones its gestures are inexpressibly terrifying to gory tyrants suspected of fomenting law and order.

RHADOMANCER, n.
One who uses a divining- rod in prospecting for precious metals in the pocket of a fool.

RIBALDRY, n.
Censorious language by another concerning oneself.

RIBROASTER, n.
Censorious language by oneself concerning another. The word is of classical refinement, and is even said to have been used in a fable by Georgius Coadjutor, one of the most fastidious writers of the fifteenth century-- commonly, indeed, regarded as the founder of the Fastidiotic School.

RICE- WATER, n.
A mystic beverage secretly used by our most popular novelists and poets to regulate the imagination and narcotize the conscience. It is said to be rich in both obtundite and lethargine, and is brewed in a midnight fog by a fat which of the Dismal Swamp.

RICH adj.
Holding in trust and subject to an accounting the property of the indolent, the incompetent, the unthrifty, the envious and the luckless. That is the view that prevails in the underworld, where the Brotherhood of Man finds its most logical development and candid advocacy. To denizens of the midworld the word means good and wise.

RIDICULE, n.
Words designed to show that the person of whom they are uttered is devoid of the dignity of character distinguishing him who utters them. It may be graphic, mimetic or merely rident. Shaftesbury is quoted as having pronounced it the test of truth-- a ridiculous assertion, for many a solemn fallacy has undergone centuries of ridicule with no abatement of its popular acceptance. What, for example, has been more valorously derided than the doctrine of Infant Respectability?

RIGHT, n.
Legitimate authority to be, to do or to have; as the right to be a king, the right to do one's neighbor, the right to have measles, and the like.

RIGHTEOUSNESS, n.
A sturdy virtue that was once found among the Pantidoodles inhabiting the lower part of the peninsula of Oque. Some feeble attempts were made by returned missionaries to introduce it into several European countries, but it appears to have been imperfectly expounded.

RIME, n.
Agreeing sounds in the terminals of verse, mostly bad. The verses themselves, as distinguished from prose, mostly dull. Usually (and wickedly) spelled "rhyme."

RIMER, n.
A poet regarded with indifference or disesteem.

RIOT, n.
A popular entertainment given to the military by innocent bystanders.

R.I.P.
A careless abbreviation of requiescat in pace, attesting to indolent goodwill to the dead. According to the learned Dr. Drigge, however, the letters originally meant nothing more than reductus in pulvis.

RITE, n.
A religious or semi- religious ceremony fixed by law, precept or custom, with the essential oil of sincerity carefully squeezed out of it.

RITUALISM, n.
A Dutch Garden of God where He may walk in rectilinear freedom, keeping off the grass.

ROAD, n.
A strip of land along which one may pass from where it is too tiresome to be to where it is futile to go.

ROBBER, n.
A candid man of affairs.It is related of Voltaire that one night he and some traveling companion lodged at a wayside inn. The surroundings were suggestive, and after supper they agreed to tell robber stories in turn. "Once there was a Farmer- General of the Revenues." Saying nothing more, he was encouraged to continue. "That," he said, "is the story."

ROMANCE, n.
Fiction that owes no allegiance to the God of Things as They Are. In the novel the writer's thought is tethered to probability, as a domestic horse to the hitching- post, but in romance it ranges at will over the entire region of the imagination-- free, lawless, immune to bit and rein. Your novelist is a poor creature, as Carlyle might say-- a mere reporter. He may invent his characters and plot, but he must not imagine anything taking place that might not occur, albeit his entire narrative is candidly a lie. Why he imposes this hard condition on himself, and "drags at each remove a lengthening chain" of his own forging he can explain in ten thick volumes without illuminating by so much as a candle's ray the black profound of his own ignorance of the matter. There are great novels, for great writers have "laid waste their powers" to write them, but it remains true that far and away the most fascinating fiction that we have is "The Thousand and One Nights."

ROPE, n.
An obsolescent appliance for reminding assassins that they too are mortal. It is put about the neck and remains in place one's whole life long. It has been largely superseded by a more complex electrical device worn upon another part of the person; and this is rapidly giving place to an apparatus known as the preachment.

ROSTRUM, n.
In Latin, the beak of a bird or the prow of a ship. In America, a place from which a candidate for office energetically expounds the wisdom, virtue and power of the rabble.

ROUNDHEAD, n.
A member of the Parliamentarian party in the English civil war-- so called from his habit of wearing his hair short, whereas his enemy, the Cavalier, wore his long. There were other points of difference between them, but the fashion in hair was the fundamental cause of quarrel. The Cavaliers were royalists because the king, an indolent fellow, found it more convenient to let his hair grow than to wash his neck. This the Roundheads, who were mostly barbers and soap- boilers, deemed an injury to trade, and the royal neck was therefore the object of their particular indignation. Descendants of the belligerents now wear their hair all alike, but the fires of animosity enkindled in that ancient strife smoulder to this day beneath the snows of British civility.

RUBBISH, n.
Worthless matter, such as the religions, philosophies, literatures, arts and sciences of the tribes infesting the regions lying due south from Boreaplas.

RUIN, v.
To destroy. Specifically, to destroy a maid's belief in the virtue of maids.

RUM, n.
Generically, fiery liquors that produce madness in total abstainers.

RUMOR, n.
A favorite weapon of the assassins of character.

RUSSIAN, n.
A person with a Caucasian body and a Mongolian soul. A Tartar Emetic.